Nesting alopecia or focal alopecia is a chronic inflammatory disease. For the ailment, the lesions of the hair follicle sites are characteristic. In rare cases, nails also suffer from alopecia. Round smooth areas appear not only on the head, but also on the face, and on the body.
Although partial baldness of the head does not cause significant harm to the health, this ailment brings enormous complexes in connection with the cosmetic defect. Many women, going through what looks unattractive, become isolated, suffer from depression and even psychosis.
Causes of Alopecia
The main cause of focal alopecia trichologists believes failure in the autoimmune system. The body begins to perceive the hair follicles as alien entities and begins to get rid of them.
The factors predisposing to nesting alopecia are:
- genetic predisposition to baldness;
- chronic infections in the body (eg, tonsillitis, rhinosinusitis, dental caries, and others);
- acute viral infections;
- stress, depression;
- Disorder of endocrine organs – deviations of the normal function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, pituitary gland;
- disruption of the autonomic nervous system, which provokes a violation of microcirculation and spasms of arterioles and capillaries;
- increased blood viscosity, slowing the rate of outflow of blood.
Forms of focal alopecia
Trichologists distinguish six clinical forms of nesting alopecia:
- Local alopecia. Characteristic isolated oval or rounded foci of hair loss.
- Ribbon alopecia or Cesium glaucoma. – The center of alopecia extends from the occipital to the temporal part in the form of a tape.
- Subtotal alopecia. The nests begin to merge into one huge hearth. Significant areas of damage.
- Total alopecia. The patient falls all the hair on his head, he loses even his eyebrows and eyelashes.
- Universal alopecia spreads over the entire surface of the body. For this form of baldness, remissions and relapses are characteristic. The disease can not retreat for decades.
- Nest alopecia with nail lesions is the most severe form of alopecia. Nail plates become thin, dull and acquire characteristic longitudinal striation. Requires urgent treatment.
As a rule, focal alopecia spreads only on the scalp, in men it often provokes the lack of growth of the beard. The forms of the disease can also migrate one to the other.
Treatment of focal alopecia
Until now, trichologists have not come to a single conclusion on the mechanism of development, treatment, and prevention of nesting baldness. Therefore, the need for comprehensive therapy and an individual approach in the choice of methods for treating this unpleasant disease is considered fair.
Unfortunately, most people, having noticed light spots and irritation on the head, begin to worry and plunge headlong into folk treatment. Certainly, these methods can stop hair loss, however, to identify and eliminate the true problem, you need to see a trichologist.